Current Status and Outlook of Indian Shrimp Aquaculture



Shrimp Hatcheries – overview

  • Installed capacity – >100 billion PL
  • Broodstock source – Imported SPF
  • Aquatic Quarantine Facility (AQF) – All imports through AQF operated by Government of India
  • Broodstock Multiplication Centre (BMC) operated by Govt. of India in technical collaboration with Oceanic Institute, USA
  • 3 more BMC’S in the pipeline

Seed Production Details (billions)

Brood-stock import details

Indian Shrimp Production Vs Boord-stock imports

Challenges in seed production:

  • Zoea to Mysis to PL conversion problems – causes not fully understood – bacterial loads suspected as culprit
  • Live feeds in maturation causing infections (EHP) – Have to find alternates
  • Adequate supply of quality brood-stock

Regulatory mechanisms:

  • Mandatory registration with Government Authority(CAA)
  • Mandatory routine inspections on protocols by authorities(MPEDA)
  • Routine random sample testing conducted by regulatory authorities (EIA)

New trends in hatcheries:

  • Quick nauplii stocking of the entire hatchery to avoid conversion problems
  • Complete shut down and THROUGH disinfection of the entire hatchery operations after every cycle IS GIVING GOOD RESULTS
  • Pasteurized live feeds for maturation working very well BUT NOT ALL HATCHERIES HAVE ADOPTED
  • Formulated feeds for maturation being tried

Indian Shrimp Farming – Overview

  • 153,000 HA under scientific shrimp farming
  • 40-50,000 HA under traditional shrimp farming
  • Potential area 11,90,000 HA
  • > 95% Vannamei

Indian Shrimp Production statistics (tons)

State wise Production Statistics ( tons )

Farm Production and Productivity

  • Average Stocking densities – 30 per sq mt.
  • Average harvest sizes – 18 grams
  • Average final Survivals – 55%
  • Average production cost – US$ 4.42 / kg (HO55-60c )
  • Production growing because of expanding farming areas but productivity reducing.
  • Overall average farm production efficiency or success rate – 60%
    Rising production cost serious concern
  • Farming profitable only because of current high prices but prices are dropping causing concern

Disease Status

  • WSSV major problem
  • EHP spreading rampantly and causing slow growth
  • White Faces syndrome quite wide spread causing slow growth and loose shells
  • Running mortality during peak summer times
  • EMS – NO
  • No other serious pathogens reported

New Trends in farming

  • Increased Biosecurity measures
  • Nurseries :
     to produce juveniles
     to strengthen the animal health at the early stage
     to better tackle diseases, improve survivals
     to reduce cost of production
     to maximise utilisation of good climatic conditions
  • MEASURES to overcome EHP and whitefaces Syndrome – pond bottom liming, seed quality checks, rigorous disinfection of source waters

Feed Production-status and challenges

  • Installed capacity – over 2 Million tons.
  • Production crossed 1 million tons in 2017
  • Every year 1 or 2 new major feed mills being set up
  • Increasing input cost serious concern
  • Farmers facing increased FCR’s and overall increased feed cost despite much competition among feed millers

Processing Factories – details

  • 344 processing factories EU approved (source MPEDA)
  • Seafood processing units in India are approved by the Export Inspection Council of India.

Approval type

  • Units eligible to export to European Union
  • Units eligible to export to countries other than European Union.

MARKETS : Frozen Shrimp exports from India

Market – Highlights

India is the TOP shrimp supplier to The USA – the largest consumer of shrimps in the world – for 5 years in a row!

Quality Control measures for exports

  • National Residue Control Plan (NRCP) – a statutory requirement for exporting to EU countries
  • Pre-harvest testing
  • Health certificate by EIA
  • Industry has adopted modern methods of handling, processing besides adequate quality control measures to improve the quality of sea food.
  • Mandatory HACCP compliance for all processing plants
  • Export rejection percentage is very low despite exports at all time high

Issues in Exports

  • Food safety issues, although detected in only 0.22% of exported shrimps, is a serious concern for exporters as they face the brunt of the rejections
  • More stringent inspections by importers particularly EU – 50% testing
  • Declining demand for large sizes is unfortunate, particularly for small and marginal farmers who mostly prefer to produce big size animals

Future outlook

  • Indian Shrimp aquaculture poised like a cat on the wall

  • India can sustain its record breaking run if it manages to improve productivity, overcome threats form existing and emerging pathogens and also take proactive measures to ensure 100% food safety compliance

Good News

  • Government is proactively taking steps
     To sustain the production and growth
     To ensure 100% compliance of food safety
     To control spread of diseases
  • Stakeholders constantly evolving up to produce and export top quality shrimps

New Records in 2018

  • India Poised to touch the 700,000 tons production mark
  • Indian Production catching up with China and expected to surpass China’s production
  • India will become the largest producer and continue to be the largest exporter of Vannamei
  • Production in Andhra Pradesh State alone to cross 400,000 tons
  • Seed production to hit all time high of 70 billion

Need of the Hour

  • Focus on improving productivity to ensure profitability and sustainability mostly disease control to improve survivals and growth
  • A Comprehensive QC program to proactively address food safety issues and traceability in aquacultured shrimps
  • Accredited Facilities to test pathogens and residues in all inputs for all stakeholders
  • Certified inputs for all stake holders in the sector
  • Sustained supply of quality brood-stock – BMC, AQF, NBC
  • Solutions to overcome EHP and whitefaces disease
  • Disease resistant seeds, particularly for small and marginal farmers doing traditional farming
  • Focus on domestic market
  • Focus on selective breeding programs for Native species
  • Most of all, a commitment form all stakeholders towards the sustainability of the sector – and what better way than to join together under one umbrella as

Confederation of Indian Shrimp Aquaculture



Source: Society of Aquaculture Professionals (SAP)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *