At present, very little information is available on the actual loss of crop due to occurrence of the various diseases in the country. Therefore, surveillance of the disease in the fish crop should form an integral part in the programme for augmenting the fish production. Research in immunology and fish microbiology at cellular and molecular level is an important aspect requires much attention. These would help in developing effective quarantine protocols, diagnostic, immunoprophylaxis, probiotics, bioremediation and chemotherapeutics. Frontier research on immune related genes to identify host-pathogen interactions and application of nanotechnology in disease prevention and water remediation are the priority areas.
Health management would play a pivotal role in the coming years for sustainability of semi-intensive or intensive systems of aquaculture. The misuse of antibiotics, problems of emerging pathogens, transboundary diseases, poor quarantine etc. are further adding up to these issues necessitating better health management practices. To meet the challenges of newer and emerging pathogens, there is a need to emphasize on the development on the development of newer molecular-based, specific, sensitive and farmer-friendly disease diagnostics. Exploration of immune system of major cultured candidate species and understanding pathogenesis of important disease would pave the way in developing suitable immunoprophylaxsis using latest molecular approaches. Diseases like argulosis, edwardsiellosis etc. that pose major threats to the industry are given priority using novel approaches of prevention or control. The potentiality on use of nonmaterial’s in diagnostics and vaccine development is also explored. Development of SPF stocks for important viral diseases of prawn might be a need in future in case of re-emergence of the pathogens. Emphasis is directed to map the diseases in major freshwater aquaculture systems of the country to prioritize the diseases that are causing major economic loss to the sector. Further, targeted active surveillance and health management practices are also taken up to prevent those diseases through development of molecular diagnostics and vaccines.
Source: Aqua Aquaria India