Global Aquaculture production has increased rapidly in the recent years. Integration and intensification of farming operation resulted it the increased yield of fish and shrimp form aquaculture operations worldwide. Intensification of aquaculture operations also demands the need for quality and strong juveniles of fish and shrimp. Focus was given to growth and disease resistance while developing parent stock for commercial aquaculture operations. Development of specific pathogen free shrimp brood stock has lead to the revival of shrimp aquaculture that was struggling to come out viral and bacterial disease outbreak. Good Aquaculture Practices have become mandatory for the sustainable growth of Aquaculture Industry.
Intensive aquaculture operations have its own limitations as it increases the risks through pathogens, environmental stress, generation of high wastes etc. Diseases are now a primary constraint to the culture of many aquatic species, impending both economic and social development in many countries Bacterial and viral pathogens are the two major disease causative agents affecting the aquaculture industry. Few million dollars of revenue is lost every year due to disease in Aquaculture.
During the early days of aquaculture variety of chemicals and antibiotics were used to treat the shrimps and fish when they are affected by a disease. The application of antibiotics is not only expensive but also is detrimental for variety of reasons ie selection of bacteria that are drug resistant or more virulent, prevalence of drug residues in reared animals. Excessive and uncontrolled use of antibiotics has resulted in increased virulence of a pathogen and drug resistance.
The presence of antimicrobial residues in products of aquaculture is a threat to human health. Increased awareness among the consumers on the food safety warrants the usage of alternate products that are effective and safe. Thus the idea of using microbial cultures to promote good health and or disease prevention of fish and shrimp emerged during early nineties. One of the most significant technologies that have evolved in response t disease control in aquaculture is the use of probiotics. The advent of probiotics in aquaculture has helped the industry to continue sustainability. Probiotics have the potential to produce results similar to those obtained with the antimicrobials and importantly in a cost effective manner.
The term Probiotic, in the context of shrimp aquaculture is defined as a live, naturally occurring microbial culture when applied to farms in which the shrimp live, beneficially help the animal’s growth and improved by the removal or decrease in the population of pathogen while the water quality is improved with the usage of probiotic by means of rapid degradation of waste organic matter.
Probiotics inhibit the colonization of pathogen by antibiosis or by competitive exclusion. Probiotics also act as an immune stimulation and the enzymes produced by the live microbes inhibit the growth and multiplication of pathogen. Probiotics also help in maintaining a stable bloom in the culture ponds. They also help in keeping the toxic ammonia under control. The addition of favourable native bacteria through probiotic application helps in managing the ecosystem well and for the effective utilization of available nutrients.
Selection of bacterial species for the preparation of probiotics is another important area. Bacteria and their strains have to be selected carefully considering their effectiveness, tolerance to environmental fluctuations, gut conditions and colonization, safety etc. The probiotic bacteria should also be naturally present in the culture environment as well in the shrimp. Bacillus species that occur naturally in fish and other aquatic animals and thus improve the health of the animals and improve water quality and the species cultured. Furthermore, Bacillus spp, provide a wide range of compounds antagonistic to vibrio spp and other bacteria.
Among the large number of probiotic products in use today are bacterial spore formers, mostly of the genes Bacillus. Used primarily in the spore form, these products have been shown to prevent gastrointestinal disorders and the diversity of species used and their applications are astonishing. The long term advantages of using spores as probiotics is that they are heat stable and can survive transit across the stomach barrier, properties that cannot be assured with other probiotic bacteria that are given in the vegetative form. Whilst the use of spores as probiotics appears to be expanding, with a growing number of products available it is equally clear that supposedly “safe” species cannot be taken for granted and every product must be evaluated on a case by case basis. Keeping in mind the safety of all health products used in commercial Aquaculture Authority, has started registering all the inputs.
Despite the doubts about probiotics, unrealistic claims, poor quality products or mode of delivery, appropriate probiotics do actually work in Aquaculture product. The development of suitable probiotics is not a simple task and requires empirical and fundamental research full scale trials as well as the development of appropriate monitoring tools and controlled production.
Usage of Water and feed probiotics in shrimp farming is common in India. Shrimp hatcheries use probiotics in maturation and larval rearing. Probiotics usage is gaining more usage of quality diets. Probiotics usage is gaining more popularity in the Indian shrimp aquaculture with strict food safety rules put in place by most of the importing countries with respect to antibiotics and the application areas are ever expanding. It is proven with respect to antibiotics and the application areas are ever expanding. It is proven beyond doubt that better production from shrimp aquqcutlure operations in India is possible without the usage of antibiotics. Absence of residues of antibiotics form our produce will help Indian shrimps to get better recognition in the world market.
Source: Aqua Aquaria