Diseases in brackish water aquaculture in India

With the imitation of a National Surveillance Programme on aquatic Animal Diseases (NSPAAD) funded by the National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB) in 2013, active surveillance of the disease and its profiling has been initiated in India across the aqua farming areas. As the aquatic health management system is getting significant importance, with the initiation of the NSPAAD programme, the scientific capacity in the country on disease diagnostics has also significantly improved over the years, and three Institutions under ICAR including CIBA, Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA) and National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources (NBFGR) have been identified as referral laboratories. Diseases of importance have been identified under the programme and have been under surveillance for drawing disease management strategies in the country.

CIBA’s investigation have revealed that during the year 2016-17, the prevalence of WSD was 8.9%, hepatopancreatic microsporidosis or Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP)23.6%,monodon baculovirus disease (MBV)2.3% and IHHN 1.6% in Vannamei farms in the major shrimp  farming states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Indian brackish water aquaculture was free from other OIC listed diseases such as TS, YHD, AHPND and Necrotising Hepato Pancreatitis (NHP). Other disease syndromes due to poor farm management such as stunted growth, white faces syndrome (WFS), and white muscle syndrome (WMS), chronic mortality syndrome (CMS), popularly known as running mortality syndrome (RMS) and black gill syndrome was observed in 15.17%,16.5%, 3.4%, 2.7%, 7.5% of the farms respectively. High stocking densities, lack of crop holidays and poor pre stocking management are attributed to several of these conditions and these conditions  can be termed as farming system related ones and not due to pathogen involvement. The information generated indicates that WSD still remains the most devastating shrimp disease in India which causes chronic regression in production. However the emergence of EHP and its impact due to its accumulation in culture environment since its detection in 2015 in India is alarming. Emergence of such new disease in Indian aquaculture despite stringent screening of brooders at AQF facility of RGCA as post border measure point to the clandestine use of pond reared brood stock for seed production in the country by a section of operators. Sensitive diagnostics are available to detect any form of these pathogens, however routine diagnosis yet to be adopted by hatcheries and shrimp farmers. It appears that farmers have a preconceived idea that there is no need of screening the SPF vannamei seeds. In this backdrop, CIBA initiated  the programme of harmonization of PCR diagnostics across the country as per the guidelines and intense efforts are being taken for capacity building of human resources associated with these laboratories, partnering with MPEDA and CAA.


Source: Aqua Aquaria

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